Treinamento de força com baixas cargas e alto volume para hipertrofia: análise de parâmetros moleculares

Igor Nasser, Victor Gonçalves Corrêa Neto

Resumo


A manipulação das variáveis do treinamento de força é um ponto crucial para otimização de resultados. Uma adaptação do treinamento é a hipertrofia do músculo esquelético, que consiste no aumento da área de secção transversa. Uma forma de manipulação das variáveis que parece promissor no que tange a hipertrofia consiste em baixas cargas e alto volume de treinamento. Esse delineamento vem ganhando notoriedade contemporaneamente, porém a literatura não parece consensual sobre seus benefícios. Sendo assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi revisar a influência de baixas cargas e alto volume de trabalho no treinamento de força. As bases de dados Pubmed, Scielo e Google Scholar foram consultadas sem limite de dados e após devidos critérios de filtragem 5 estudos compuseram o corpo o de evidências da presente revisão. Foi utilizada a escala PEDro para analise metodológica dos estudos selecionados. Todos os estudos apresentaram boa qualidade metodológica, com notas acima de 5. O treinamento com baixas cargas e maior volume foi capaz de promover hipertrofia de maneira similar ao treinamento com menor volume e maior sobrecarga tanto para membros superiores quanto inferiores, como visto nos trabalhos analisados. Fatores como recrutamento de diferentes fibras musculares no exercício, síntese proteica, estimulação de células satélites e outros fatores associado ao estresse metabólico estariam envolvidos nessa metodologia de treinamento. Conclui-se que tal modelo de treinamento é eficiente para hipertrofia muscular podendo ser uma boa opção dentro de uma periodização de treinamento e que a justificativa para esse tal fenômeno é complexa por premissas multifatoriais.

 

ABSTRACT 

Low load and high-volume training for hypertrophy: molecular parameters analysis

The manipulation of resistance training variables is a crucial point for optimize results. One adaptation of the strength training is the hypertrophy of the skeletal muscle, that consist in an increase of the cross sectional area. One method that can contribute to this adaptation is to use low load and high volume that showed great results. This design is gaining notoriety, but the literature seems not consensual about its benefits. Based on it the purpose of this review is to analyze some research that used this method to assess skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Using Pubmed, Scielo and Google Scholar databases and respecting the inclusion and exclusion criteria 5 studies were selected. To assess the methodological quality of the studies, the PEDro scale was applied. All studies showed great methodological quality with grades above 5. Training with low loads and high volume was able to promote hypertrophy in upper limbs and lower limbs similar to a training wih high loads and low volume in all studies analyzed. Different muscle fibers recruitment involved in the exercise, protein synthesis, satellite cells signaling and other factors associated to metabolic stress are some of the reasons that justify the finds. This review can conclude that resistance training using low loads and large volume were as effective to hypertrophy and a good option to use among a periodization. The responses for this phenomenon is complex by multifactorial premises.


Palavras-chave


Treinamento; Exercício; Hipertrofia

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Referências


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