Respostas cardiovasculares ao esforço máximo: efeitos vasodilatadores e hipotensores

Alexandre Fontana, Natália Schneider

Resumo


As respostas cardiovasculares à exercícios resistidos estão bem documentadas na literatura, contudo as respostas para estas variáveis ainda são escassas quando se fala em exercício realizado em um dinamômetro isocinético. Objetivo: avaliar as respostas cardiovasculares agudas em um exercício isocinético de esforço máximo, juntamente com uma breve revisão dos mecanismos interferentes, vasodilatadores e hipotensores. Métodos: 15 sujeitos (homens, 22,5 ± 1,7 anos, 74,3 ± 6 Kg, média ± DP), praticantes de exercícios resistidos de alta intensidade. O exercício foi composto por três séries unilaterais de extensão e flexão de joelho em um dinamômetro isocinético sob uma velocidade angular de 180°/segundo, a primeira série teve 45 segundos de duração, a segunda 30 segundos e a terceira 15 segundos, todas realizadas em máximo esforço e com dois minutos de intervalo entre as séries. Resultados: significativa alteração da frequência cardíaca na fase de recuperação onde mostrou valores bem superiores aos de repouso (p=0,0012), mesmo após dez minutos de monitorização pós-exercício. A Pressão arterial diastólica apresentou diferença significativa (p=0,0426) em relação ao repouso, destacando hipotensão. Conclusão: Tal queda pressórica na fase de recuperação possibilita dizer que houve uma resposta hipotensora diastólica isolada ao esforço e que a permanência elevada da frequência cardíaca nesta fase foi para manter o débito cardíaco pelo aumento do retorno venoso. Tal situação foi fisiologicamente explicada por meio dos mecanismos cardiovasculares que apresentam interferências hipotensiva e vasodilatadoras.

 

ABSTRACT 

Cardiovascular responses to maximal effort: vasodilator and hypotensive effects

Cardiovascular responses to resistance exercises are well documented in the literature, however the responses to these variables are still scarce when talking about exercise performed in an isokinetic dynamometer. Purpose: To evaluate the acute cardiovascular responses in a maximal effort isokinetic exercise with a brief review of the interfering vasodilator and hypotensive mechanisms. Methods: Subjects (N=15) (men, 22.5 ± 1.7 yr, 74.3 ± 6 kg, mean ± SD) performed three unilateral sets of extension and knee flexion in an isokinetic dynamometer under an angular velocity of 180°/second. The first series had a duration of 45 seconds, the second 30 seconds and the third 15 seconds, all performed in maximum effort and with two minutes of rest between the sets. Results: A significant change in the heart rate in the recovery phase, showing values well above the rest (p=0.0012), even after ten minutes of post–exercise monitoring. Diastolic blood pressure presented a significant difference (p=0.0426) in relation to rest, highlighting hypotension. Conclusions: Such a pressure drop in the recovery phase makes it possible to say that there was an isolated diastolic hypotensive response to the applied effort and that the high heart rate at this stage was to maintain the cardiac output by increasing the venous return. The situation was physiologically explained through the cardiovascular mechanisms, which have neural, hypotensive and vasodilators interferences. 


Palavras-chave


Resposta Cardiovascular à Exercícios Resistidos; Interação Cardiovascular Sistêmica; Hipotensão Pós-exercício; Vasodilatação Induzida por Exercício; Exercício de Esforço Máximo

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