Efeito do Kaatsu training na força e hipertrofia muscular de idosos: revisão sistemática

Cláudio Luiz da Silva Lima Paz, Lázaro Maia Batista, Tiago Silva Alves, Marcelo dos Santos Guimarães Júnior, Thiago Batista Araújo, Amanda Silva Fraga, Mário César Carvalho Tenório

Resumo


Nas últimas décadas, a expectativa de vida se elevou globalmente. Estima-se que até 2020, o número de idosos seja superior ao de crianças menores de 5 anos, e que a sua proporção em 2050 alcance os 22%. A principal adversidade intrínseca do envelhecimento é a diminuição da massa muscular (sarcopenia) e consequente diminuição da força. As principais recomendações para aperfeiçoamento do sistema musculoesquelético envolvem atividades que sejam realizadas em intensidades ≥ 60% da carga máxima levantada para uma repetição (1RM). Entretanto, exercícios de alta intensidade não são recomendados para todos desta população, tendo em vista os comprometimentos articulares e/ou com síndrome de fragilidade. Uma possível alternativa é a combinação de exercícios de baixa intensidade, associados a restrição do fluxo sanguíneo como o Kaatsu training. Realizamos uma revisão sistemática o objetivo de sumarizar os efeitos do Kaatsu training nos desfechos da força e hipertrofia muscular em indivíduos idosos. As buscas foram realizadas nas bases de dados científicas – Pubmed, Science Direct e Scielo, onde foram selecionados artigos publicados até 30 de setembro de 2017. A análise foi restrita a ensaios clínicos randomizados em idosos com idade média ≥60 anos. Seis estudos foram incluídos para análise qualitativa, foi demonstrado aumentos 4,1% a 72,4% e 4,4% a 8% na força e hipertrofia muscular respectivamente. O método Kaatsu training demonstrou ser uma abordagem eficaz para aumentar a força e a hipertrofia muscular em coortes de idoso.

 

ABSTRACT 

Effect of Kaatsu training on muscle strength and hypertrophy in the elderly: a systematic review

In the last decades, life expectancy has increased globally. It is estimated that by 2020 the number of older people will be higher than that of children under 5, and that their proportion by 2050 will reach 22%. The main intrinsic adversity of aging is the decrease in muscle mass (sarcopenia) and consequent decrease in strength. The main recommendations for improvement of the musculoskeletal system involve activities that are performed at intensities ≥ 60% of the maximum lifting load for a repetition (1RM). However, high-intensity exercises are not recommended for all of this population, considering joint and / or fragility impairment. One possible alternative is the combination of low-intensity exercises, associated with restriction of blood flow such as Kaatsu training. We performed a systematic review aiming to summarize the effects of Kaatsu training on strength outcomes and muscle hypertrophy in elderly individuals. The searches were carried out in scientific databases - Pubmed, Science Direct and Scielo, where articles published until September 30, 2017, were selected. The analysis was restricted to randomized clinical trials in the elderly with a mean age ≥60 years. Six studies were included for qualitative analysis, showing increases from 4.1% to 72.4% and 4.4% to 8% in muscle strength and hypertrophy respectively. The Kaatsu training method has been shown to be an effective approach to increase muscle strength and hypertrophy in elderly cohorts.


Palavras-chave


Kaatsu training; Idosos; Exercício; Sarcopenia

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