Alterações agudas induzidas por uma prova de triathlon longo em diferentes biomarcadores enzimáticos e da função imune

  • Faber Sérgio Bastos Martins Faculdade de Desporto - Universidade do Porto
  • José Augusto Rodrigues dos Santos Faculdade de Desporto - Universidade do Porto
Palavras-chave: Triathlon, Treino, Atividade enzimática, Sistema imune, Linfócitos


Objetivo: Analisar as alterações hematológicas agudas induzidas por uma prova de triathlonlongo. Avaliou-se o comportamento de diversos biomarcadores enzimáticos e da função imune em atletas portugueses masculinos de triathlon. Material e Métodos: 10 atletas seniores masculinos (31,5 ± 1,2 anos; 69,3 ± 1,9 kg;177,7 ± 1,4 cm; 22,0 ± 0,8 de IMC e 10,1 ± 2,2 % GC) divididos em grupos elite e não-elite. Foram recolhidas amostras de sangue venoso periférico antes e imediatamente após as provas. Utilizou-se estatística descritiva, testes não-paramétricos de Wilcoxone Mann-Whitney e coeficiente de correlação de Spearman. Resultados: Verificou-se o aumento da atividadedas enzimas CK e AST (p<0,05) em ambos os grupos. O aumento da atividadeda enzima GGT (p<0,05) ocorreu somente no grupo elite. Foi constatado, em ambos os grupos, um aumento da contagem leucocitária, fundamentalmente expressa pelo aumento da contagem de neutrófilos (p<0,05). Após a prova, registrou-se a diminuição da relação CD4/CD8 e aumento das concentrações dos linfócitos T CD3+CD8+, T CD4+reg e T CD4+CD69+ nos atletas dos grupos não-elite. Conclusão: Os resultados encontrados sugerem que a intensidade e a duração da prova de triathloncondicionam as respostas dos diversos biomarcadores analisados em função do nível de treino dos atletas.


-Brancaccio, P., Limongelli, F., Maffulli, N. Monitoring of serum enzymes in sports. Br J Sports Med. Vol. 40. 2007. p. 96–97.

-Chevion, S. Plasma antioxidant status and cellinjury after severe physical exercise. Biochemistry. Vol. 100. Num. 9. 2003. p. 5119 -5123.

-Chinda, D., Nakaji, S., Umeda, T. A competitive marathon race decreases neutrophil functions in athletes. Luminescense. Vol. 18. 2003. p. 324 -329.

-Clarkson, P.M., Hubal, M. Exercise-induced muscle damage in humans. Am J Phys Rehabil. Vol. 81. Num. 11. 2002. p. S52 –S69.

-Donnelly, A., Clarkson, P., Maughan, R. Exercise-induced muscle damage: effects of light exercise on damage muscle. Eur J Appl Physiol. Vol. 64. 1992. p. 350 –353.

-Fallon, K., Sivyer, G., Sivyer, K., Dare, A. The biochemistry of runners in a 1600 km ultramarathon. Br J Sports Med. Vol. 33. 1999. p. 264 –269.

-Faure, M., Gapin, L., Viret, C. Stresseing the virtues of the immune system. Microbes Infect. Vol. 6. Num. 10. 2004. p. 960 –964.

-Fleisher, G.A., Wakin, K.G. The role of small intestine in the disposal enzymes. Enzym Biol Clin. Vol. 9. 1968. p. 81–96.

-Friden, J., Lieber, R. Eccentric exercise induced injuries to contractile and cytoskeletal muscle fibre components. Acta Physiol Scand. Vol. 171. 2001. p. 321-326.

-Fu, S., Qin, L., Leung, C.K., Chan, B.P,, Chan, K.M. Regular moderate exercise training prevents decrease of CD4+ T-lymphocytes induced by a single bout of strenuous exercise in mice. Can J Appl Physiol. Vol. 28. Num. 3. 2003. p. 370 –381.

-Gabriel, H., Schwarz, L., Steffens, G. Immunoregulatory hormones, circulating leukocyte and lymphocyte subpopulations before and after endurance exercise of different intensities. Int J Sports Med. Vol. 13. 1992a. p. 359 –366.

-Gleeson, M. Immune function and exercise. EurJ Sports Sci. Vol. 4. Num. 3. 2005. p. 52–65.

-Gleeson, M. Immune function in sport and exercise. 1stEd, Elsevier: Philadelphia. 2006.

-Gratze, G., Rudwick, R., Urban, W., Skrasal, F. Hemodynamic and autonomic changes induced by ironman: prediction of competition time by blood pressure variability. J ApplPhysiol. Vol. 99. 2005. p. 1728-1735.

-Green, K.J., Croaker, S.J., Rowbottom, D.G. Carbohydrate supplentation ans exercise-induced changes in T-lymphocyte function, J Appl Physiol. Vol. 95. Num. 3. 2003. p. 1216-1223.

-Hassanein, J., Razak, A., Gavaler, J., Van Thiel. Heatstroke: its clinical and pathological presentation with particular attention to the liver. Am J Gastroenterol. Vol. 87. 1992. p. 1382 –1338.

-Heijnen, B., Van Veen, S., Straatsburg, I., Gulik, T. Pronunced effect of minor changes in body temperature on ischemia and reperfusion injury in rat liver. J Appl Physiol. Vol. 91. 2001. p. 265 –268.

-Kayashima, S., Ohno, H., Fujioka, T., Taniguchi, N., Nagata, N. Leucocytosis as a marker of damage induced by chronic strenuous physical exercise. Eur J Apply Physiol Occup Physiol. Vol. 70. Num. 5. 1995. p. 413 –420.

-Knez, W.L., Jenkins, D.G., Coombes, J.S. Oxidative stresse in half and full ironman triathletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Vol. 39. Num. 2. 2007. p. 283–288.

-Laursen, P.B.; Rhodes, C. Factors affecting performance in ultraendurance triathlon. Sports Med. Vol. 31. Num. 3. 2001. p. 195–209.

-Laursen, P.B.; Rhodes, E.C.; Langill, R.H., McKenzie, D.C., Taunton, J.E. Relationship of exercise test variable to cycling performance in an ironman triathlon. Eur J Appl Physio. Vol. 87. 2002. p. 392-395.

-Lieber, R.L., Fridén, J. Cytoskeletal disruption after eccentric contraction-induced muscle injury. Clin Orthop. Vol. 403. 2002. p. S90-S99.

-Liu, J.F., Chang W.Y., Chan, K.H., Tsai, W.Y., Lin, C.L. Blood lipid peroxides and muscle damage increased following intensive resistence training of female weightlifters. Annals New York Academy of Science. Vol. 10. 2005. p. 255–261.

-Margaritis, I., Tessier, F., Richard, M., Marconnet I. No evidence of stresse oxidative after a triathlon race in highly trained competitors. Int J Sports Med 1997; 18:186–190.

-McHugh, M.P. Recent advances in the understand of the repeatd bout effcet the protective effect gainst muscledamage from a single bout of eccentric exercise. Scand J Med Sci Sports. Vol. 13. 2003. p. 88 –97.

-Mougios, V. Reference intervals for serum creatine kinase in athletes. Br J Sports Med 2007; 41: 674-678.

-Natale, V.M., Brenner, I.K., Moldoveanu, A.I. Effects of three different types of exercise on blood leukocyte count during and following exercise. São Paulo Med. Journal. Vol. 121. Num. 1. 2003. p. 9 –14.

-Nieman, D.C. Effects of athletic endurance training on infection rates and immunity. In: Kreider, R.B. Overtraining in Sports. Champaign: Human Kinetic. 1995. p. 193-217.

-Nieman, D.C., Henson, D.A., Austin, M.D., Brown, V.A. Immune response to a 30-minutes walk. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Vol. 37. Num. 1. 2005. p. 57–62.

-Nieman, D.C.,Henson, D.A., Davis, J.M., McAnulty, L,S. Blood leukocyte mRNA expressão for IL-10, IL-1ra and IL-8 but not IL-6 increases after exercise. J Interferon Cytokine Res. Vol. 26. 2006. p. 668-674.

-Nieman, D.C., Henson, D.A., Mcanulty, S.R., MCanulty, L.S., Morrow, J.D., Ahmed A., Heward, C. Vitamin E and immunity after the Kona Triathlon World Championship. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Vol. 36. Num. 8. 2004. p. 1328-1335.

-Ohno, H., Yahata, K., Yamamura, Y. Effect of physical training on immunoreactive γ-glutamiltransferase in human plasma. Enzyme. Vol. 39. 1988. p. 110 –114.

-Ortega, E., Forner, M., Barriga, C. Enhaced chemotaxis of macrophages by strenuous exercise in trained mice: thyroid hormones as possible mediators. Mol Cell Biochem. Vol. 201. Num. 1-2. 1999. p. 41 –47.

-Palazzetti, S., Richard, M., Margaritis, I. Overload training increases exrcise-induced oxidative stresse and damage. Can J Appl Physiol. Vol. 2884. 2003. p. 588–604.

-Peake, J.M., Suzuki, K., Wilson, G., Coombes JS.Exercise-induced muscle damage, plasm cytokines and markers of neutropil activation. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Vol. 37. 2005. p. 737–745.

-Pedersen, B.K., Hoffman-Goetz, L. Exercise and immune system: regulation, integration and adaptation. Psic Rev. Vol. 80. Num. 3. 2000. p. 1055 –1081.

-Peters, E.M., Robson, P.J., Kleinveldt, N.C., Jogessar, V.D. Hematological recovery in male ultramarathon runners: the effect of variations in training load and running time. J sports Med Phys Fitness. Vol. 44. 2004. p. 315-321.

-Pizza, F.X., Mitchell, J.B., Davis, B.H., Bigelow, N. Exercise-induced muscle damage: effect on circulating leucocyte and lymphocyte subsets. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Vol. 27. Num. 3. 1995. p. 363 –370.

-Rama, R., Ibanez, J., Riera, M., Prats, M.T., Pagés T, Palacios L. Hematological, electrolyte and biochemical alterations after 100km run. Can J Appl Physiol. Vol. 19. Num. 4. 1994. p. 411–420.

-Reichlin, S. Neuroendocrinology.In: Wilson, J.D. e colaboradores. Williams textbook of endocrinology. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. 1998. p. 165 -248.

-Rietjens, G.J., Kuipers, H., Hartjens, F., Van Breda, E. Physiological, biochemical and psycological markers of strenuous training-induced fatigue. Int J Sports Med. Vol. 26. Num. 1. 2005.p. 16 -26.

-Skenderi, P., Kavouras, S., Anastasiou, C., Yiannakouris, N., Matalas, A. Exertional rhabdomyolisis during a 246km continuous running race. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Vol. 38. Num. 6. 2006. p. 1054-1057.

-Stromme, J.H., Rustad, P., Steensland, H. Reference intervals for eight enzymes in blood of adults females and males measured in accordance with the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry reference system a 37C. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. Vol. 64. 2004. p. 371 –384.

-Suzuki S,Nakaji S, Yamada M, Liu Q, Kurakake S, Okamura N. Impact of a competitive marathon race on systemic cytokine and neutrophil responses. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Vol. 35. Num. 2. 2003. p. 348 –355.

-Suzuki, S., Sato, H., Kikuchi, T., Abe, T., Nakaji, S., Sugawara, K. Capacity of circulating neutrophilis to produce reactive oxygen species after exhaustive exercise. J Appl Physiol. Vol. 81. Num. 3. 1996. p. 1213 –1222.

-Totsuka, M., Nakaji, S., Suzuki, K., Sato, K. Break point of serum creatine kinaserelease endurance exercise. J Appl Physiol. Vol. 93. 2002. p. 1280-1286.

-Tremblay, M.S. Methodological and statistical considerations for exercise-related hormone evaluations. Sports Med. Vol. 20. Num. 2. 1995. p. 90 –108.

-Warburton, D.E., Welsh, R.C., Haykowsky, M.J., Taylor, D.A. Biochemical changes as result of prlonged strenuous exercise. Br J Sports Med. Vol. 36. Num. 4. 2002. p. 301 –303.

Como Citar
Martins, F. S. B., & Santos, J. A. R. dos. (2012). Alterações agudas induzidas por uma prova de triathlon longo em diferentes biomarcadores enzimáticos e da função imune. RBPFEX - Revista Brasileira De Prescrição E Fisiologia Do Exercício, 5(27). Recuperado de
Artigos Científicos - Original